Nonduality, in its many guises, can be seen as the pinnacle of the spiritual path. This experience, however brief, can usher one into the profound depths of the mystery of consciousness. This lecture will present a brief overview of the history and philosophy of nonduality, outlining the different types of nonduality as understood in contemplative traditions. A contemporary map of consciousness will be introduced, including nondual awareness (a.k.a. Clear Light, Buddha-nature, the Self), the foundational aspect of our consciousness. I will review the results of current contemplative neuroscience research. I will explore how these results can contribute to a more optimal understanding of nonduality, and the practices and methods to realize it.